Alzheimer’s disease: role of LEMON BALM

Research Findings on Use of Lemon Balm for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

Recent research studies suggest that lemon balm may help improve cognitive function and decrease agitation in people diagnosed with various dementia conditions including Alzheimer’s disease. Common symptoms of dementia, especially in the later stages, include agitation, aggression, shouting, depression, delusions, pacing, wandering, sleep disturbances and hallucinations. Drugs sometimes help to manage the condition but often with unpleasant — or even dangerous — side effects. In contrast lemon balm has shown sedative and anti-anxiety effects without bad effects in studies of healthy people. Though preliminary, several recent studies of lemon balm treatments show improvement, too, among patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease.


An alternate approach that shows promise is aromatherapy.  With this technique a patient receives the active agent in either of two ways:

1.) inhalation

2.) skin application through massage with aromatic oils

One problem with aromatherapy research, though, is that it can be difficult to distinguish whether benefits obtained this way are the result of actual biological activity of the agent in question or, instead, by the pleasure of the experience. Researchers can design placebo-controlled trials, but even then foolproof double-blinding  is difficult to achieve. For this reason a totally objective, valid conclusion can be challenging.

In one recent study conducted in England, 72 severely demented patients with clinically significant agitation were treated by aromatherapy. The agent was essential oil of lemon balm in a base lotion, massaged into the skin (face and arms) twice daily for four weeks. Compared with a placebo (sunflower oil) group, the lemon balm treatment patients exhibited markedly less agitation. They were also less socially withdrawn and they engaged in more constructive activities according to researchers there.

Oral Intake

Lemon balm contains a number of volatile essential oils, including citronellal and citral A and B. Many of these oils have sedative properties. In both animal and human studies the herb, taken by mouth, produces calming effects. In larger doses it may also promote sleep.

Based on the positive effect in mice, human trials are now underway. In a four-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 42 people with Alzheimer’s disease, use of an oral lemon balm extract significantly decreased their tendency to become agitated and improved their cognitive function.

A new study from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran also seems to support the therapeutic potential of lemon balm.  Researchers there tested 42 elderly men and women, aged 65 to 80 years, with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Those subjects participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of four months’ duration. The therapeutic agent was 60 drops per day of lemon balm in the form of an alcoholic extract. Preliminary results were encouraging. After 16 weeks of treatment with lemon balm, the test patients showed significant benefits in cognition as measured by two batteries of tests. The researchers found improvement in functions such as attention, language, memory, orientation, judgment and reasoning. There was also a significant reduction in agitation among the test subjects.

Meanwhile Dr. David Kennedy, a researcher at Northumbria University, says of his part in a study there: “As a sedative, the lemon balm extract worked. The more [they] took, the more it worked. But it was only the dried leaf, which is probably closest to the traditional way of taking lemon balm, that enhanced memory. We believe that it could be used as an helpful adjunct to conventional treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.”

Topical Application

In one study in England, researchers found that applying lemon balm oil to the faces and arms of patients with severe dementia reduced their agitation by 35 percent.

In another study lemon balm essential oil applied to the skin in the form of a cream also reduced agitation in 71 people with Alzheimer’s disease. The researchers in this U. K. study originally considered the experimental treatment to be a form of aromatherapy; however, one of the first faculties to diminish in Alzheimer’s disease is the sense of smell. Other professionals, therefore, conclude that it is more likely that absorption through the skin accounts for the improvement.

Why Does It Work?

Recent studies indicate that lemon balm stimulates the brain’s acetylcholine receptors.  Acetylcholine (ACh) is the principal neurotransmitter for cognitive functions in brain activity.  Deficits in ACh levels and activity are probably primary neurological factors in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. British researchers recently evaluated lemon balm’s stimulation of ACh receptors as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.  The herb is already well known to function as a mild sedative. This study evaluated its benefit in helping to alleviate the nervous agitation often associated with severe dementia. As a bonus, the researchers noted that antioxidant properties of lemon balm may also provide some protection against free radical damage, a known causative factor in Alzheimer’s disease. The British authors concluded their report of findings by stating:

On the broader question of a possible medicinal role for M. officinalis, it is notable that the results evinced here support the suggestion that M. officinalis may eventually have a role to play in the treatment of dementia.

Another study noted that lemon balm suppresses acetylcholinesterase, the brain chemical that breaks down ACh.  This action may help stimulate and support memory and mood.

In one Chinese study eugenol, a powerful antioxidant found in lemon balm, and acupuncture helped test subjects recover memory-related functions.

Another series of experiments at Northumbria University published for the British Psychological Society’s annual conference highlights work of Dr. Elaine Perry. Researchers at Medical Research Council’s unit at Newcastle General Hospital in England conducted this lemon balm study. On autopsy Dr. Perry found a positive effect on pieces of brain tissue and chemical receptors of Alzheimer’s patients.

Recommended Intake

For mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: 60 drops per day of a standardized lemon balm extract, prepared 1:1 in 45% alcohol.


There is still more work to be done before definitive proof is established. Preliminary research, though, suggests a therapeutic role for lemon balm in treating symptoms of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease or others in the dementia category.

Herpes Virus: How Effective is LEMON BALM?

How Effective Is Lemon Balm Against Herpes Virus?

Lemon balm contains significant polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and other compounds). As a result studies are underway to investigate potential for the herb in treatment of cold sores (herpes labialis).  Researchers speculate that lemon balm might have a role in combating the herpes simplex virus, shingles and other viral afflictions as well.

Numerous test tube studies have found that extracts of lemon balm possess antiviral properties in vitro. The predominant explanation theorizes that the herb blocks viruses from attaching to host cells. Several animal studies also support the value of topical lemon balm for treating herpes lesions. In a few small, placebo-controlled human trials lemon balm topical cream or ointment has shown some efficacy in managing cold sore lesions caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Even though treatment did not completely eliminate symptoms, researchers noted significant reduction in the duration and severity of herpes outbreaks. Data also documented a reduction in the frequency of recurrence. Regular use of lemon balm potentially might help prevent flare-ups, but this application has not yet been rigorously evaluated.

What Does Current Research Show?

One double-blind study followed 66 individuals who were just starting to develop a cold sore (oral herpes). Treatment with lemon balm cream produced significant benefits on the second day. The herbal remedy reduced intensity of discomfort, number of blisters and size of the lesion. The researchers specifically looked at day #2 because, according to them, that is when symptoms are most intense. To achieve best efficacy, treatment must begin at a very early stage of the infection. Accelerated healing was most evident in the first two days of treatment.

Another multicenter clinical study of 115 patients, followed by a placebo-controlled, double-blind study involving 116 patients, also confirmed antiviral activity. This research incorporated a dried extract of lemon balm leaf into a lip balm. Test subjects used the balm to treat lip sores associated with herpes simplex infections.
The study of 115 subjects involved three German hospitals and one dermatology clinic. Results showed that, when lemon balm was used to treat the primary infection of HSV I, not a single recurrence followed. The remedy was also effective in reducing healing time of both genital and oral herpes. The outcome is probably a result of antiviral properties of the caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid components of lemon balm.
Both studies showed best results with treatment at the earliest possible point following onset of infection. In the second study, for example, subjects experienced improvement in redness and swelling after only two days. Other symptoms, such as pain and scabbing, however, did not improve.

Recommendations for Application

To treat cold sores, choose a cream or ointment with one percent of a 70:1 freeze-dried, water-soluble extract. Apply it two to four times daily from first sign of symptoms until a few days after the cold sores have healed. For treatment of an active flare-up of herpes, the proper dosage is four thick applications daily. The dosage may be reduced to twice daily for preventive purposes.


Certain conventional drug treatments can reduce infectivity and thereby perhaps help prevent the spread of herpes. Unfortunately there is no evidence as yet that lemon balm offers this benefit in the case of genital infections. Keep in mind also that common sense methods of avoiding transmission of genital herpes are not 100% effective. Many people are infectious even when they do not exhibit obvious symptoms. Use of a condom does not entirely prevent the spread of herpes virus. Experts strongly recommend suppressive drug therapy for infected individuals who may be sexually active with a noninfected partner.

Insomnia and Anxiety: Is Lemon Balm Effective?

Can Lemon Balm Manage Insomnia and Anxiety Symptoms?

Research studies are now underway to evaluate the effectiveness of lemon balm to treat stress, anxiety and insomnia. Early results show evidence of improved sleep patterns with reduced stress and anxiety when the herb is utilized.

What Research Evidence Exists for Using Lemon Balm To Relieve Anxiety and Insomnia?

One recent study looked at people with minor sleep problems. About 81 percent of those who took an herbal combination of valerian and lemon balm reported sleeping much better than the placebo group.
A different preliminary trial studied the effect of valerian root extract combined with extract of lemon balm. This research pitted the herbal combination against the prescription sleeping drug triazolam (Halcion). Effectiveness of the herbal remedy was statistically similar to that of Halcion. Only subjects from the Halcion group, however, reported feeling hung over and had trouble concentrating the next day. The herbal group reported no such adverse side effects.
In another double-blind trial researchers administered a combination of 360 mg valerian and 240 mg lemon balm. The herbal combination, taken before bed over a two-week period, was effective in improving reported sleep quality for one-third of the participants.
It is not clear from these and other similar studies, though, whether the lemon balm or the valerian (or the combination) produced the result.  
Few studies have examined lemon balm by itself, except for topical use. One exception is a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 18 healthy volunteers. These research subjects ingested two separate single doses of either a standardized lemon balm extract (300 mg and 600 mg) or else a placebo for seven days. The 600-mg dose of lemon balm was reported to improve mood and to increase calmness and alertness significantly.

European Approaches

European healthcare providers use lemon balm widely today to treat anxiety and insomnia. Commission E of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices approved it for managing “nervous sleeping disorders” . Commission E is the German governmental agency that evaluates both safety and effectiveness of herbal products. The German Standard License approves lemon balm tea for treating nervous disorders of sleep and the GI tract.

ESCOP (European Scientific Cooperative On Phytotherapy) approves lemon balm for internal use to manage tenseness, restlessness and irritability. Additionally the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia documents its use as an effective sedative (internally) and a topical antiviral (externally). Lemon balm is the main ingredient of Carmelite Water. This remedy is for sale in German pharmacies today to treat nervous disorders. It is advertised to “comfort the heart and driveth away melancholy and sadness”.

Herbal Lemon Balm – Top 6 Medicinal Uses

Herbal Lemon Balm: Background and Overview

Recently the healthcare community has focused new interest on herbal lemon balm. Practitioners and researchers are studying the plant for effectiveness in managing a wide variety of conditions.  Ailments ranging from digestive problems and insomnia to herpes virus and Alzheimer’s disease may respond to treatment with lemon balm.

Why Is There So Much Interest in Herbal Lemon Balm Now?

Research continues, but scientists have already discovered some potentially powerful constituents in leaves, flowers and stems of the lemon balm plant. Essential oils manufactured from the leaves contain a significant quantity of the plant chemicals called terpenes. These organic hydrocarbons play at least some role in the herb’s reputed relaxing effects. Lemon balm also contains tannins, probably responsible for many of the herb’s antiviral properties. In addition it contains eugenol, which calms muscle spasms, numbs tissues and kills bacteria. Citral, citronella and geraniol are other active components of lemon  balm.

Lemon balm is available in the general retail marketplace or online for purchase in bulk as a dried leaf. It is also sold in the form of a tea or as a component in capsules, extracts, tinctures and oils. In addition some homeopathic blended remedies and aromatherapy essential oils include lemon balm as a component. Some European topical creams contain such high levels of the herb, though, that those products may not be available for purchase in the United States. As an alternative, brewed lemon balm teas, instead, can be directly applied to the skin using cotton balls.

Current Medicinal Uses of Herbal Lemon Balm

Some healthcare practitioners recommend lemon balm, with varying proof of efficacy, to manage wide-ranging symptoms. Among the applications under study now are the following, each with a link to the review of pertinent research:

  1. insomnia/anxiety
  2. herpes virus
  3. Alzheimer’s disease and dementia
  4. hyperthyroidism/Graves’ disease
  5. digestive problems
  6. mood, stress and mental performance

 Potential Side Effects of Herbal Lemon Balm

Clinical trials generally report no adverse reactions, and topical lemon balm is not associated with any significant side effects. As with other herbs, though, allergic reactions and hypersensitivity could always be possible. Oral lemon balm appears on the FDA’s GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list. Sedating effects of the herb do not seem to be intensified by alcohol.

— cautions —

1.) One study suggests that lemon balm may reduce alertness and impair mental function in some individuals. The actual effect probably varies depending upon dosage amounts and individual body metabolism rate. Subjects engaging in activities that require alertness probably should avoid using the herb beforehand. Use caution with lemon balm intake whenever operating a motor vehicle or heavy machinery.

2.) At least one animal study suggests that if lemon balm is taken orally at the same time as standard sedative drugs, it might amplify the effect. In this way lemon balm potentially could lead to excessive sedation.

3.) People with glaucoma should avoid the volatile oil of this herb. More human studies are needed because research suggests that lemon balm may raise pressure in the eye of lab animal test subjects.

4.) Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take this herb unless specifically prescribed by a healthcare professional.

The use of herbs has been a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and managing disease symptoms. Herbs, however, can contain components that occasionally might trigger side effects and/or interact with other herbs, supplements or medications. Herbal remedies generally should be taken with care and preferably under the supervision of a healthcare provider qualified in the field of botanical medicine.

 Potential Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs   (synergism/antagonism)

  • sedatives: Lemon balm may interact with some sedatives. There is evidence in animal studies that the herb can potentiate the effects of prescription drugs phenobarbital and hexobarbital. It is also possible that certain over-the-counter products used to treat insomnia or anxiety could interact with lemon balm. Individuals under treatment with sedative medication should consult with a qualified healthcare professional before taking lemon balm.
  • thyroid medications: Lemon Balm has an effect upon the thyroid hormone (TSH) in Grave’s disease. At least one scientific paper cautions against the use of lemon balm if an individual exhibits propensity toward hypothyroidism. There is concern that, in such a situation, the level of TSH could fall even farther. In addition to its anti-TSH effect, the herb may also prevent intestinal thyroxine absorption. Lemon balm seems to strengthen rather than stimulate thyroid function. When taking drugs such as thyroxine to regulate thyroid function, an individual should use this herb only on the specific advice of a qualified medical caregiver.
  • HIV medications: It is not yet clear whether lemon balm interacts with antiretroviral agents. Individuals taking medication for HIV should avoid using the herb unless a physician prescribes otherwise.

 Identity and Description of Herbal Lemon Balm 

Lemon balm (scientific name: Melissa officinalis) is a low-growing perennial herb related to the mint family. The name Melissa corresponds to a Greek word for bee. It refers to the bee’s attraction to this flower and the quality of the honey produced from it. The word balm is a contraction of the word “balsam”. Local variations for the name include: lemon balm, Melisa/Melissa, sweet balm, bálsamo de limón, balm, cure-all, dropsy plant, honey plant, Melissae Folium, Mélisse, Mélisse Citronnelle, Melissenblatt, Monarde, sweet Mary and toronjil. The plant can grow up to two feet tall, sometimes even higher if not conservatively cultivated or maintained.

In spring and summer clusters of small, light yellow or white flowers, attractive to bees and other insects, grow where lemon balm leaves meet the stem. These leaves, much like those of mint, are round and heart-shaped.  Lemon balm leaves, though, are very deeply wrinkled. Depending on the soil and climate, they can range from dark green to yellowish-green in color. Usually harvested for commercial use before the plant actually flowers, the leaves smell tart and sweet (much like lemons) when bruised or rubbed.

 History of Herbal Lemon Balm 

Indigenous to the Mediterranean region and western Asia, lemon balm is now grows all over Europe, Asia and North America. Historically the herb was dedicated to the goddess Diana. The Greeks probably used it medicinally as early as 2000 years ago. Records show that Charlemagne once ordered lemon balm planted in every monastery garden because of its beauty.

Over the last two thousand years mankind has used lemon balm for its medicinal, aromatic and uplifting qualities.  An old Arabian proverb celebrates it as: “Balm that makes the heart merry and joyful.”  In past centuries people scattered this beautifully-scented herb across floors or between church pews to freshen up rooms. It even had a role in polishing antique furniture. Today horticulturists grow lemon balm not only in herb gardens or simply to attract bees but also in crop lots for medicine, cosmetics, furniture polish manufacturing and other assorted purposes.

Historical Health Uses for Herbal Lemon Balm

For centuries people have used lemon balm to reduce stress or anxiety and to promote sleep. They  improve appetite and ease pain or discomfort from indigestion caused by gas and bloating as well as colic. Even before the Middle Ages healers commonly steeped the herb in wine and administered it orally to lift the spirits. Additionally they applied it topically as a surgical dressing to help heal wounds and to treat venomous insect bites and scorpion stings. Documentation of its use in herbal medicine extends back to the times of Pliny (Roman, AD 23-79), Dioscorides (Greek, AD 40-90), Paracelsus (Austrian, 1493-1541) and John Gerard (English, 1545-1612).

In the Middles Ages healers prescribed lemon balm extensively to soothe tension and nervous stomach. Healers recommended it to dress wounds and to cure toothache, skin eruptions, mad dog bites, crooked necks and sickness during pregnancy. At that time some practitioners even touted lemon balm as a means to prevent baldness. They employed it against bronchial inflammation, earache, fever, flatulence, headaches, high blood pressure, influenza, mood disorders, insomnia, anxiety, depression, palpitations, toothache and vomiting. Midwives and other traditional healers recommended tea made from lemon balm leaves to soothe menstrual cramps and help relieve PMS.

Current Alternative/Commercial Uses of Lemon Balm
  • Herbal remedies incorporate lemon balm leaves, stems and flowers all for medicinal purposes.
  • Lemon balm is a popular oil in aromatherapy. The pure, sweet aroma of the oil promotes a feeling of relaxation and calm to help relieve depression, melancholy and nervous tension.
  • Crushed lemon balm leaves, when rubbed on the skin, are effective for use as a mosquito repellent. When blended with other insect-repelling herbs (e.g., lavender, lemongrass and rue) and used to rub down a kitchen table, lemon balm can keep bugs away from food at serving time. You can even throw it into the campfire or barbeque pit to keep pesky insects away from the meal preparation area.
  • The extract and the oil of lemon balm enhance taste of many foods and beverages. It imparts flavor to ice cream and to herbal teas, both hot and iced. It combines well with other herbs, such as spearmint or peppermint, to further enhance the flavor. The herb is also often paired for flavor with fruit dishes and candies. Its leaves often appear as a garnish for beverages, salads and main dishes. It works well, too, in fish dishes and in fact is the key ingredient in a very delicious lemon balm pesto.
  • Frequently incorporated into cosmetics, lemon balm soothes and cleanses the skin. It may also reduce fine lines.
  • Lemon balm is a key manufacturing ingredient in high-end furniture polish and wood-care products.
  • The lush perennial lemon balm plant grows well in any partly-shaded environment. It attracts bees to the area and thereby improves pollination of neighboring plants. It is a great green filler for garden landscaping. Lemon balm also grows nicely in an inside pot or other container.

Slimmed-Down Holiday Desserts and Beverages Too!

HOW TO END YOUR HOLIDAY FEAST WITH A SMILE: Seven Slimmed-Down Holiday Desserts (under 150 calories each!) and a Bountiful Bonus of Low-Calorie Beverages Too

During the holiday season it is all too easy to get distracted and stressed out by the many pressures to select gifts, mail out greeting cards, finalize travel plans, shop for special groceries and a myriad of other tasks that can deplete energy and lead to negative thoughts. It doesn’t have to be that way though. As a very dear new friend recently reminded me with a shared inspirational message: when you have your priorities established correctly, then you can focus on the positive, uplifting aspect of the impending celebration season.

Three key words brought the situation into focus for me: HOPE, PEACE and JOY. With hope there is a reason for everyday optimism, even in stressful, pressure-filled or discouraging times, and with hope there then comes peace. Peace of mind and of spirit will lead to the joy which we desperately need in these days. I am forever grateful for the joy in my life … never more so than during the holidays. I wish wholeheartedly for hope, peace and joy in your life, too, throughout the rest of this year and into the coming months as well. Happy, HAPPY holidays to you and your loved ones!

Holiday Desserts

To finish this series on healthy meals, let’s look at a variety of holiday desserts — seven of them, one for each day of the week. And because none of these recipes will supply more than 150 calories per serving, yes, you can have the whole week’s worth without doing damage to your diet plan. Just remember: limit yourself to a single serving and then you will be able to enjoy a nice variety including cookies, embellished fruit options and even special “better-for-you” brownies.

Recipes – All Under 150 Calories!

Holiday Strawberries Filled with Banana Cream

Craving the flavor of decadent strawberry cheesecake?  To avoid hundreds of excessive calories, try these festive, delicious stuffed strawberries instead.  They are easy to make and require only a few ingredients, most of which you probably already have on hand.  Here’s the best news: you can eat all eight of them and still keep your indulgence under 150 calories.

Starry, Starry Night (Orange-Coconut Cookies)

Festive holiday cookies to bring the winter stars right to your celebration table for holiday desserts — and, with less butter, sugar and eggs, deliver no more than 150 calories in three whole cookies (and for variety: two additional ways to change up the basic dough and produce entirely different cookies from the very same recipe).

Yuletide Orange Delight

At less than 100 calories per serving, this light, fruity dessert can appear often on your celebration table. Try substituting different fruits and switching gelatin flavors. You can even improvise a color scheme that will reflect the very best of the holiday season.

More Slimmed-Down Holiday Desserts

Winter Wonderland Brownies

Lower in fat than a traditional recipe (this recipe calls for low-fat milk, fewer eggs and a reduced amount of sugar and butter), these brownies get their rich flavor from a combination of cocoa and dark chocolate.

Celebration Strawberry Mousse

Light and fluffy, this fresh-tasting dessert can serve as the perfect ending to your holiday feast without weighing down your guests.  Afterwards how about a snowball contest outside to get everybody moving again?  Or, maybe build and decorate a holiday snowman instead?

Warm-You-Right-Up Spiced Peach Dessert

An easy-to-fix, nicely spiced fruit dessert that is guaranteed to warm the cockles of your heart even on the coldest winter night.

Paper-Thin Individual Fruit Pies

These crisp pastry shells, filled with fruit and glazed with apricot jelly, offer an excellent, flavorful (but low-fat and low-calorie!) option to replace extravagant holiday pies, cakes and baked puddings.


When selecting a beverage for enjoyment and relaxation, consider a variety of tea options (herbal or conventional). They and coffee choices will add no calories whatsoever to your meal. Have on hand low-calorie sweeteners and lighteners as alternatives to sugar and heavy cream. As another hot beverage choice, 100-Calorie Cocoa offers a flavorful, warming way to ward off Old Man Winter.

100-Calorie Hot Chocolate Drink

Sparkling water or flavored seltzer will offer a zero-calorie beverage. You can add a festive note to any party setting. Just dress it up with a slice of lemon or a wedge of lime. If you opt for a celebration toast with “real” wine, consider Prosecco or Brut Champagne. Either one will weigh in at less than 130 calories for a standard pour.

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Sincere wishes for the very best holiday ever! Relax, enjoy your guests and appreciate the blessings of this season. Then plan to come back after your New Year celebration Look for a whole new series then. Find the spotlight focused on benefits of various herbs and supplements. You can make a positive impact on your wellness in the months to come. Happy, happy holidays!!!